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About The Book

Physical Geology is a comprehensive introductory text on the physical aspects of geology, including rocks and minerals, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, mass wasting, climate change, planetary geology and much more.  It has a strong emphasis on examples from western Canada.  It is adapted from “Physical Geology” written by Steven Earle for the BCcampus Open Textbook Program.


Unless otherwise noted, the second edition of this book is released under a  Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License also known as a CC BY license. This means you are free to copy or redistribute this book.  Under this license, anyone who redistributes this textbook can do so for free providing they properly attribute the book as follows:

Physical Geology, 2nd Adapted Edition by Karla Panchuk used under a CC BY 4.0 International License.

Additionally, if you redistribute this textbook, in whole or in part, in either a print or digital format, then you must retain on every physical and/or electronic page the following attribution:

Read this book for free at https://physicalgeology.pressbooks.com

Cover image: A stream near Golden BC where water has smoothed and eroded rocks, highlighting bedding planes. Image credit: Karla Panchuk